Last week I looked at the (lack of) convergence of immigration policies over time. Today, I examine whether indicators of political opportunity structure (POS) converge over time. We collected data to examine this as part of the SOM project (description of indicators).
In the following table I consider just a few indicators of POS. I include both issue-specific and generic aspects of POS for the seven countries covered in the SOM project (AT, BE, CH, ES, IE, NL, UK).
|Effective number of parties in legislature||No convergence|
|Seat-share of anti-immigrant parties||No convergence|
|Political parties have special arrangements for immigrant candidates||No convergence|
|Public money for immigrant organizations||No convergence|
|Specific department for migration||Clear convergence|
|Right to vote at national level, TCN||All countries the same|
|Embedded consultation||No convergence|
There is no convergence for most of the indicators considered here. There is only one real exception: we observe a clear trend to have a dedicated department for migration. In 1995 only Switzerland had such an organizational arrangement, in 2010 only Austria did not have one.